Whenever you turn the right knob on in a faucet, cold water comes out and the left knob is always meant for warm or hot water. In some cases, where separate knobs are not available, the left side provides hot water while the same knob gives cold water when turned to the right direction. What makes this happen? As we know, there should be some standard specific to the temperature of water and its relation with the direction of the faucet’s knob.

The secret behind the universal standard of faucet knobs and availability of hot and cold water first came into existence during the plumbing’s introduction in the United States in 19th century. At that time, water was drawn through hand pumping. In the initial days, merely cold water was available through hand pumping. As humans majorly use their right hands to operate knobs and pumps, the knob for cold water automatically got the right side placement. Merely 5 to 30% of the population are left handed, claims a study published by Scientific America. There was a steady demand of right handed water pumps keeping in mind the population. There was no point in increasing the manufacturing costs for producing water pumps having handles for the left handed people. In the early days, taps for hot water and cold water were distinguished.

The technique to bring hot water inside the faucets was created spontaneously. After some time, hand operated pumps left the scene and their place was taken by the instant hot and cold water providing faucets with the twist in the knob’s direction. Today’s modern day taps were made during 1880’s, says a feature on the ‘history of hot water tap’. It was the very first occasion when water came through a single tap irrespective of its temperature. People were habitual of turning the right side knob for normal water, so knob for hot water was provided in the right direction. That clears the air about knobs being operated right for cold water and left for the hot water.

Cartridge is the basic thing for a faucet to function smoothly. The rocket switch inside the cartridge allows blockage and opening of the hot water and cold water as operated. Switching to hot or cold mode or completely blocking the water flow is possible only because of a cartridge fitted inside a faucet. When you turn the faucet on, the cartridge is pushed forward unblocking both lines of water supply.

By keeping the lever down, both lines remain blocked and hence water flow is restricted. The temperature of the out coming water supply depends on the intensity of the direction towards which lever is pressed. When cartridge is at the middle or centre, there is a balanced supply of water. When tilted to the right, there would be more cold water in the supply. When pressed to the left, there would be more supply of the hot water.

This valve delivers a perfect mixture of hot and cold water according to the operational instructions. It also instantly adjusts the changes in the faucet’s water supply and maintains a perfect balance between the hot and cold water supply to let you enjoy a comfortable bath. In case of ceased cold water supply, the thermostatic mixer will block the water supply thereby keeping you safe from burns by getting exposed to hot water.

Concealed cistern is best for bathrooms having less space available. Such cisterns remain attached to toilet pan, hidden inside a wall unit or remain out of sight, giving a false perception of large bathroom. Some variants of cistern measure as thin as 75 mm and could be fixed on the partition spaces and wall cavities, leaving only flush to the visible view. Paving way for a clean looking and spacious toilet, these comply with the basic requisites of a close coupled system. Here are few significant facts everyone should know about these cisterns –

Size and location –

Analyzing space is crucial to getting concealed cistern installed into your toilet. The depth and height of your wall partitions must be thoroughly analyzed to consider various cistern sizes available in the industry. These cisterns are best option for only back to wall pan, leaving the rest unfeasible. While buying a concealed cistern for your toilet, look for the one along with a hanging frame. The frame will be placed inside the wall and will comfortably lift weight of the pan making the concealed cistern work smoothly for your toilet.

There are three categories of heights namely ‘comfort’, ‘universal’ and ‘standard’ one. The standard height is 14.5 inches from the floor towards the bowl’s rim, excluding the toilet seat. Comfort height is at 16 inches whereas universal height includes an elevated position of 17 to 19 inches from seat to the floor.

1 bar water pressure equals to 33.455256 feet of water.

WC Weight Withstanding Capacity – 400 Kgs

WC’s Seat Cover Lid – 150 Kgs

Washbasins – 100 kgs

These sinks are manufactured from natural quartz comprising 75 -80% special colour and minerals and remaining 20% of resin that keeps the components together. These look like granite but have texture of a stone. Being the second hardest material after diamond, sinks made out of quartz are nearly unbreakable, so that even a sharp knife scratch couldn’t harm these. These are also dent proof and hard to damage.

How Do Food waste Disposer Operate?

Although there is not much visible change in the functioning of Foodwaste disposer on the outer front, this meaningful thing has seen tremendous changes and improvements through previous few years. The current disposers are well versed in grinding more types of food waste as compared to their primitive counterparts. The operation has become less noisy and more convenient with its evolving mechanism. Large segment of users believe that food disposers work like blenders having fine chopping blades to cut the food waste but this is just a false assumption. In truth, there is no involvement of blades in the food waste disposer. There are lugs mounted onto the plate which spins to break down large Foodwaste chunks into disposable ones. This is done by forcing food waste to the grind ring of the disposer through centrifugal force in operation. These fine food particles are then flushed through the system via a wastewater pipe. Then it travels to your septic system for complete disposal.


Foodwaste disposal is a modern way of destroying food waste and is far safer for environment than the traditional methods like landfills. Reducing emissions like greenhouse gases, Foodwaste is processed and converted into renewable sources of energy through waste treatment plants. The plant friendly fertilizers are also made from Foodwaste and is sparingly used by farmers, avid gardeners and golf courses. The unpleasant smells are kept at bay by the blower, preventing bad odour and ensuring better performance at silent operation. Greater the number of blowers, better would be the resulting performance when it comes to removing access oil, grease and smells.

We all are aware of the deep frying, spices and the condiments that go into each and every Indian cuisine like kebabs or curries. Equally aware we are about the clouds of smoke and the bad smells that keep lingering for long onto the kitchen even after half an hour of preparing these meals in kitchen. Normal action is to open the windows and let the smokes out. Exhaust fans are helpful but only up to a certain limit. Their elevated position also is a problem in keeping these clean after regular usage.

Is it best to use kitchen chimneys that are reachable, can extract smoke efficiently and easier to clean at the same time?

These facts help kitchen chimneys score far better than traditional modes of exhaust operation.

A kitchen chimney not only enhances aesthetic appearance of your kitchen, it also makes it hygienic. It maintains cleanliness of your kitchen by blocking oil soot, greasy marks and unwanted odors that might obstruct your kitchen from looking clean and fantastic. People choosing chimneys as per their design and installation needs is becoming quite a trend nowadays, believes Melvin Coutinho, from renowned kitchen essentials brand Hafele.

Chimneys have become the most popular utility in every household these days. Thanks to the affordability and efficiency that come with it. Before proceeding to order one such chimney for your own kitchen, be informed about all types of chimneys available in the markets.

Types of Chimney -

At basic level, there are two types of chimney. These are ducting or vented chimney and ductless chimney.

Ducting or Vented Chimney –

This chimney vents excess smoke, gas and oil through a PVC pipe that is fitted into it and vents out in the open. This is the most common type of chimney people usually go after.

Ductless Chimney –

This type of chimney recycles the air and replaces it with fresh air. It simply cleans the same air and circulates it in to the kitchen. Charcoal filter is fitted inside a ductless chimney.


Mesh Filter:

It is a multilayer filter made from aluminum and there are three to seven layers in it. Used for capturing gas particles, these filters could be cleaned comfortably. These require cleaning more often because of many holes and small particles of spices, dust might get occasionally stuck into these pores. These filters are not suitable for Indian kitchens though.

Baffle Filter:

These are an improved version of filters that came after experiencing the shortcomings of mesh filters. These work on cut and chop technique, segregating smoke from oil and spices. With its ability to handle a variety of smokes, oil and greasy substances, it is highly recommended for Indian kitchens. Cleaning these filters is also convenient.


Suction Capacity:

The ability to remove or suck smoke and grease of a chimney is its suction capacity. Electrical chimneys with improved suction mechanism are ideal for Indian kitchens where lots of deep frying takes place. Go for high suction for cooking deep frying dishes and choose medium suction for normal cooking.

Size Electric chimneys often come in two size variants of 60 cms and 90 cms.


Blowers operate along with chimneys to remove bad odour from the kitchen. These also operate silently and remove oil molecules and unwanted gases. More blowers means better performance every time.

Auto cleaning feature:

There are a variety of features available under auto cleaning techniques in the market, some are discussed hereunder –

  • Auto cleaning mechanism under zero or negligible maintenance,
  • Sealed motor to obstruct gas and dust inflow,
  • Turbine blower made from aluminum, requiring least servicing due to its nonstick quality,
  • Kitchen chimney without filters – removing the need for periodic servicing,
  • An oil filter that can accumulate oil particles and could be detached from the chimney.

After following these tips, I bought the best chimney for my kitchen and I am completely satisfied with it till date.


Know your faucet’s finish-

Check out the manufacturer’s instructions for your faucet’s cleaning. Chrome being the most common faucet type, requires minimal care but other types may need special care.

Try basic cleaning-

Try the basic cleaning ritual first on your faucet. Using a mix of plain water and dish washing soap can help a lot. Don’t forget to wipe the faucet with a drying cloth to achieve that perfect finish.

Try more intense cleaning-

Using white vinegar might help if basic cleaning has still left some spots unclear the very first time. Use a mixture of half vinegar and half water to do this type of cleaning. Apply this with a cleaning cloth and wash away with normal water. Before applying this mixture to any type of faucet make sure to test it beforehand on a little portion.

Clean around the edges-

Difficult to reach edges could be cleaned efficiently with an old toothbrush. It can be done by using plain water along with mild liquid soap. Dry the faucet well with a cleaning cloth.

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